The supposedly self-evident
A feast is first and foremost meeting, the shared experience of the celebratory meal, festival performances, festive lights and fireworks. Feasts are natural components of human society in all cultures.
We reassure ourselves, that our life is not only a succession of sleeping and waking, work and free time, movement and constancy, but that it is supposed to give meaning and purpose to the existence of the individual and society. Man develops a hopeful overall idea of his future action and volition. The constant reassurance about the supposedly self-evident is essential. Aristotle expects a “good life” to come from the discernment of the educated and cultivated person. With the law, man is the noblest creature, without law the wildest animal. The matter is definite: The free man works for leisure, wages war for peace. Modern constitutions guarantee man to search for his happiness. This right to hope, to define his goals and paths on his own authority, is the most important task of the constitutional state. The constitution gives man the freedom to dream his individual dreams, to pursue and reach them. A state that took away people’s hope would not be a state of law. And the law needs people, who hope. Feast days are a celebration of hope.
Translated from Paul Kirchhof (2018). Recht braucht Feiertage
In the last decadence of the Middle Ages it was a common procedure to burn anyone, who held opinions different to one’s own – and it failed altogether in its object.
But there is one thing that is infinitely more absurd and unpractical than burning a man for his philosophy. This is the habit of saying that his philosophy does not matter. General theories are everywhere contemned; the doctrine of the Rights of Man is dismissed with the doctrine of the Fall of Man. Atheism itself is too theological for us to-day. Revolution itself is too much of a system; liberty itself is too much of a restraint. We will have no Principles.
From: Gilbert Keith Chesterton (1908). Heretics
All the same
And one of the things that are really appalling, I think, about our modern world is that we’re rejecting the notion of qualitative distinctions. We say: “Well, we don’t want to hurt anyone’s feelings by saying one thing is better than another.”
But if people are in fact insufficient in their present condition, which seems to be the case – try finding someone who isn’t – then if you deny the possibility of qualitative distinction because you want to promote a radical egalitarianism, then you remove the possibility of redemption because there’s no movement towards the good. And it seems to me that it’s a catastrophe to sacrifice the good for the equal because for us to be equal would mean, as far as I can tell, that we would all be equally unredeemed and miserable.
By Jordan B. Peterson, from a lecture (2017), see youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UoQdp2prfmM&feature=youtu.be&t=2h24m01s
The quiet of the human animal
Without actually intending to do so, Israel has given the world a God. He is a remarkable God, a God who stands forth irritatingly in contrast to all other gods. The Babylonian, Egyptian, and Greek deities were content with the sacrifices and mystic rituals dedicated to them. They did not, so to speak, transcend their province as deities. Israel’s God, however, constantly reaches out beyond His theological domain.
He turns the human animal upside down. He eternally makes demands. He demands, for instance: “Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself!” “Why should I love my neighbor?” asks the human animal in his natural state. “He is evil, and I must defend myself against him and be on my guard.”
In His evangelical extension Israel’s God becomes still more absurd. “Love thine enemies,” He commands. “Forgive those who hate thee! Turn the other cheek!” The human animal blinks helplessly.
For two thousand years “natural man,” the “man of the nations,” the “Goy,” has been groaning under the unwished-for paradox of that eternally unrealizable “thou shalt – thou shalt not – thou shalt…” He longs to be what he is, a natural creature beyond good and evil, a heedlessly creative or destructive force, like the oceans and clouds, rivers and mountains. Science comes to aid him in his path of metaphysical obstacles.
It is the most violent religious war mankind has ever waged against this two-thousand-year-old paradox, the biblical spirit in all its manifestations.
From: Franz Werfel (1941). My Profession of Faith. Jewish Digest
Park Schönbrunn 1950. On two benches with three catholic teachers my age. “That we Jews killed him, I said, is a mere excuse for your hatred against Jews. What you can never forget, conversely, is that we brought him to you.” They looked at me like I was a lunatic.
“That’s right. That a Jewish man named Jesus existed, who, contrary to our human nature, taught love and forgiveness. You can’t forgive us the forgiver. You don’t hold against us that you were robbed of him through ‘us’, but that he came to you through us. Hitler knew that perfectly well and speculated for your hatred against Jesus. With every Jew you slay, you slay him. You don’t bear a grudge against us because we are not ‘the likes of you’, but rather because you are afraid that somehow you have turned into ‘the likes of us’, or you might. Your being Christian, or having to be Christian, does not only feel unbearable to you, but unforgivable, something that demands revenge. It is for this reason that you have nailed us to the cross for two thousand years. And often even supposedly in the name of the crucified.” After my words two of them stayed silent because they had to refuse to believe this truth, so because of additional resentment. The third was braver though, and spat in my face.
Translated from: Günter Anders (1965). Philosophische Stenogramme
No story without history
It is said that the time for „great stories“ has passed; we can’t tell such stories anymore, much less invent them. Let us at least pose the question: What kind of story would be appropriate for our current situation?
Such a story, I believe, would have to encompass the substantiality of science. It will have to meet the challenge of the renaissance: that means the fusing of the Judeo-Christian and Greek-Roman, of Athens and Jerusalem. But first, a „history of Europe“ will have to look the Shoah in the eye. It will have to make tangible for our heart and our mind the methodical creation of hell on earth that occurred at a time during which the old hell had in its depths lost its cogency. It could be sung by a woman or even a child …
From: George Steiner (1994). The Myth of Europe. Speech at the opening of the 1994 Salzburg Festival
Project for a Better World
Liberty, equality, fraternity!” But how do we get to the action words? –
The world strides towards the better. But where does the better stride to? –
You can recognize a good example when it is not contagious. –
Translated from: Stanislaw Jerzy Lec (1982). Sämtliche unfrisierte Gedanken
A wake-up call 70 years ago
Emerging into the ruins of a world that didn’t drown in water, but in fire and blood and tears, in a tribunal that can well be put alongside that atoning flood from the early days of man.
Never can we grant the thought access that our sparing is a sign of our special worth. We know only one thing: As we were left, God still has plans with us. That we are still alive means “vocation”.
Translated from: Ida Friederike Görres (1947). Was wir wollen. Kristall, Bild und Ebenbild
The right or the wrong time to wake sleepwalkers
Countless people live in ignorance, relaxed, day by day, like young animals. They live as if there is no guilt and knowledge. They wander through existence. They sleep. Should one wake them up?
Let's suppose that they can be awakened, – but for what? So they can start with what the others are already doing? No, not for that. But it would be a gain for the world if they were illuminated, clarified, and let towards life, if they were enlightened and led to the light. There already was an enlightenment period. A new better one is needed.
From: Alfred Döblin (1948). Autobiographical Writings and Records (1977)
Of all conceivable forms of enlightenment the worst is what these people call the Inner Light.
Of all horrible religions the most horrible is the worship of the god within. That Jones shall worship the god within him turns out ultimately to mean that Jones shall worship Jones.
From: Gilbert Keith Chesterton (1908). Orthodoxy